The ICMJE guidelines  state that a conflict of interest exists when professional judgment concerning a primary interest (such as patients' welfare or the validity of research) may be influenced by a secondary interest (such as financial gain). Anything that could be perceived as a conflict of interest should be declared. Some examples include financial relationships (such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership or options, honoraria, patents, and paid expert testimony), personal relationships or rivalries, academic competition, and intellectual beliefs. 

Declaration of conflict of interest is mandatory for all chapters. If there is no conflict of interest, the authors should include the following statement:

“The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to research, authorship and/or publication of this chapter".

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